Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (PD-1 & PD-L1 Targeting Drugs)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, worldwide. In 2020 alone, over 19 million new cases of the disease (affecting different organs) and close 10 million associated fatalities, were reported worldwide. Over the next couple of decades, experts believe that the global cancer burden is likely to increase by almost 50%. Currently, a variety of therapeutic measures are available for the treatment of different types of cancers; of these, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, are considered the current standards of care. However, the efficacy of the aforementioned procedures has been shown to be severely limited, especially in treating advanced-stage cancers that have metastasized beyond their respective points of origin. Additionally, the non-specific and highly toxic nature of both chemotherapy and radiation therapy is known to significantly deteriorate quality of life. Over the last couple of decades, several targeted, anti-cancer therapies have been developed, and many are already available in the market. Of these, immune checkpoint directed therapies, which are designed to prevent malignantly transformed cells from evading immune surveillance, have demonstrated a lot of potential in treating a variety of cancer types.

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